A taxonomic revision of the Palaearctic members of the subgenus Lasius s.str. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

+ The Supplementary Informations SI1 and SI2 are downloadable as digital material

  • Bernhard Seifert Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz
Keywords: numeric morphology-based alpha-taxonomy, nest centroid clustering, cryptic species

Abstract

A revision of the Palaearctic members of the ant subgenus Lasius s.str. is presented the fundamentals of which are application of Numeric Morphology-Based Alpha-Taxonomy (NUMOBAT), investigation of type specimens of 58 taxa, critical evaluation of original descriptions of further 22 taxa, and decision-making based on the GAGE species concept. Excluding nomina nuda and unavailable names, 80 taxa are considered which divide into 56 recognized good species (with 16 of these described here as new), 12 junior synonyms, 11 incertae sedis, and one name representing a F1 hybrid. Eighteen phenotypic characters – seven shape, eight seta and two pubescence characters as well as absolute size – were recorded numerically in 4900 worker individuals originating from 1722 nest or spot samples. The subdivision of the subgenera Lasius s.str. Ruzsky 1913, Cautolasius Wilson 1955, Dendrolasius Ruzsky 1913, Chthonolasius Ruzsky 1913 and Austrolasius Faber 1967 is clearly confirmed by morphological data with each of the 99 recognized Palaearctic species being unambiguously assignable to either subgenus. A key to the 56 Palaearctic species of Lasius s.str., subdivided into five geographic regions, is presented. All species are depicted as z-stack photos in two standard positions. The new species Lasius precursor sp. nov. is proposed as a model for transition from a largely monogynousmonodomous social type (exemplified by the sister species Lasius turcicus Santschi 1921) to a supercolonial type (exemplified by the closely related species Lasius neglectus Van Loon et al. 1990).

References

Bagherian, A., W. Münch & B. Seifert (2012): A first demonstration of interspecific hybridization in Myrmica ants by geometric morphometrics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). – Myrmecological News 17: 121-131.

Bolton, B. (1995): A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. – Harvard University Press, Cambridge & London, 504 pp.

Buhs, J.A. (2000): Building on bedrock: William Steel Creighton and the reformation of ant systematics, 1925–1970. – Journal of the History of Biology 33: 27–70.

Cremer, S., L.V. Ugelvig, F.P. Drijfhout, B.C. Schlick-Steiner, F.M. Steiner, B. Seifert, D.P. Hughes, A. Schulz, K.S. Petersen, H. Konrad, C. Stauffer, K. Kiran, X. Espadaler, P. d’Ettorre, N. Aktaç, J. Eilenberg, G.R. Jones, D. R. Nash, J.S. Pedersen & J.J. Boomsma (2008): The Evolution of Invasiveness in Garden Ants. – PLoS ONE 3(12): e3838. doi:10.1371/journal. pone0003838

Csősz, S. & B. L. Fisher (2015): Diagnostic survey of Malagasy Nesomyrmex species-groups and revision of hafahafa group species via morphology based cluster delimitation protocol. ZooKeys, 526: 19–59. https://doi.org/10.3897/ zookeys.526.6037.

De Lattin, G. (1967): Grundriss der Zoogeographie. – Fischer, Jena, 602 pp. Donisthorpe, H. (1926): Ants and myrmecophiles at Bordighera. – Entomologist‘s Record and Journal of Variation 38: 17-18.

Hewitt, G.M. (1993): After the Ice: Parallelus meets Erythropus in the Pyrenees. – In: Harrison, R.G.(ed): Hybrid zones and the evolutionary process, Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford, p. 140-164.

Janda, M., D. Folková & J. Zrzavý (2004): Phylogeny of Lasius ants based on mitochondrial DNA and morphology, and the evolution of social parasitism in the Lasiini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). – Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 33: 595–614.

Knaden, M., A. Tinaut, X. Cerda, S. Wehner & R. Wehner (2005): Phylogeny of three parapatric species of desert ants, Cataglyphis bicolor, C. viaticus, and C. savignyi: a comparison of mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, and morphometric data. – Zoology 108: 169-177.

Kulmuni, J., B. Seifert & P. Pamilo (2010): Segregation distortion causes large-scale differences between male and female genomes in hybrid ants. – PNAS 107(16): 7371 – 7376.

Maruyama, M., Steiner, F., Stauffer, C., Akino, T., Crozier, R.H. & Schlick-Steiner, B.C. (2008): A DNA and morphology based phylogenetic framework of the ant genus Lasius with hypotheses for the evolution of social parasitism and fungiculture. – BioMed Central Evolutionary Biology 8: 237. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-237.

Mayr, G. (1861): Die Europäischen Formiciden (Ameisen). Wien, 80 pp. Randers, J. (2012): 2052: A Global Forecast for the Next Forty Years. – Chelsea Green Publishing, White River Junction, 416 pp.

Salata, S. & L. Borowiec (2018): A new species of the ant genus Lasius Fabricius, 1804 from Crete (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) – ZooKeys 789: 139–159. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.789.27022

Seifert, B. (1992): A taxonomic revision of the Palaearctic members of the ant subgenus Lasius s.str. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). – Abhandlungen und Berichte des Naturkundemuseums Görlitz 66/5: 1-67.

Seifert, B. (1999): Interspecific hybridisations in natural populations of ants by example of a regional fauna (Hymenoptera:Formicidae). – Insectes Sociaux 46: 45-52.

Seifert, B. (2000): Rapid range expansion in Lasius neglectus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) - an Asian invader swamps Europe. – Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 47(2):173-179.

Seifert, B. (2002): How to distinguish most similar insect species - improving the stereomicroscopic and mathematical evaluation of external characters by example of ants. – The Journal of Applied Entomology 126 /9: 445-454.

Seifert, B. (2006): Social cleptogamy in the ant subgenus Chthonolasius - survival as a minority. – Abhandlungen und Berichte des Naturkundemuseums Görlitz 77:251-276.

Seifert, B. (2008): Removal of allometric variance improves species separation in multi-character discriminant functions when species are strongly allometric and exposes diagnostic characters. – Myrmecological News 11: 91-105.

Seifert, B. (2009): Cryptic species in ants (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) revisited: we need a change in the alphataxonomic approach. – Myrmecological News 12: 149–166.

Seifert, B. (2010): Intranidal mating, gyne polymorphism, polygyny, and supercoloniality as factors for sympatric and parapatric speciation in ants. – Ecological Entomology 35 (Suppl 1): 33-40.

Seifert B. (2013): Hypoponera ergatandria (Forel, 1893) – a cosmopolitan tramp species different from H. punctatissima (Roger, 1859) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). – Soil Organisms 85:189-201.

Seifert, B. (2014): A pragmatic species concept applicable to all eukaryotic organisms independent from their mode of reproduction or evolutionary history. – Soil Organisms 86: 85-93.

Seifert, B. (2016): Inconvenient hyperdiversity – the traditional concept of “Pheidole pallidula” includes four cryptic species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). – Soil Organisms 88(1): 1-17.

Seifert, B. (2018): The ants of Central and North Europe. – Lutra, Tauer, 425 pp.

Seifert, B. (2019a): Hybridization in the European carpenter ants Camponotus herculeanus and C. ligniperda (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). – Insectes Sociaux 66: 365-374. https://doi. org/10.1007/s00040-019-00693-0

Seifert, B. (2019b): Lasius nigroemarginatus Forel, 1874 is a F1 Hybrid between L. emarginatus (Olivier, 1792) and L. platythorax Seifert, 1991 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). – Beiträge zur Entomologie 69 (2):291–300.

Seifert, B. (2019c): A taxonomic revision of the members of the Camponotus lateralis species group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Europe, Asia Minor and Caucasia. – Soil Organisms 91(1):7-32.

Seifert, B. (2020): The Gene and Gene Expression (GAGE) species concept – an universal approach for all eukaryotic organisms. – Systematic Biology, syaa032 [https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syaa032].

Seifert, B., S. Csösz & A. Schulz (2014a): NC-Clustering demonstrates heterospecificity of the cryptic ant species Temnothorax luteus (Forel, 1874) and T. racovitzai (Bondroit, 1918) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). – Contributions to Entomology (Beiträge zur Entomologie) 64: 47-57.

Seifert, B., I. Kleeberg, B. Feldmeyer, T. Pamminger, E. Jongepier, S. Foitzik (2014b): Temnothorax pilagens sp. n. – a new slave-making species of the tribe Formicoxenini from North America (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). – ZooKeys 368: 65–77. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.368.6423

Seifert, B., A. Bagherian Yazdi, R. Schultz (2014c): Myrmica martini sp.n. – a cryptic species of the Myrmica scabrinodis species complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) revealed by geometric morphometrics and nest-centroid clustering. – Myrmecological News 19: 171-181.

Seifert, B. (2017): page 115 of digital supplementary material to: Seifert, B. (2017): The ecology of Central European non-arboreal ants – 37 years of a broadspectrum analysis under permanent taxonomic control. – Soil Organisms 89(1): 1-67. http://www.senckenberg.de/wp-content/ uploads/2019/08/89-1-01_characteristics_study_plots_ seifert_neu.pdf

Seifert, B., M. Ritz & S. Csösz (2013): Application of Exploratory Data Analyses opens a new perspective in morphology-based alpha-taxonomy of eusocial organisms. – Myrmecological News 19: 1-15.

Seifert, B., J. Kulmuni & P. Pamilo (2010): Independent hybrid populations of Formica polyctena X rufa wood ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) abound under conditions of forest fragmentation. – Evolutionary Ecology 24(5): 1219-1237.

Seifert, B. & S. Csösz (2015): Temnothorax crasecundus sp. n. – a cryptic Eurocaucasian ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) discovered by Nest Centroid Clustering. – Zookeys 479: 37–64. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.479.8510. Seifert, B. & C. Galkowski C. (2016): The Westpalaearctic Lasius paralienus complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) contains three species. – Zootaxa 4132 (1): 044–058. http:// doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4132.1.4

Seifert, B., I. Okita & J. Heinze (2017a): A taxonomic revision of the Cardiocondyla nuda group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). – Zootaxa 4290 (2):324-356.

Seifert, B., D. d‘Eustaccio, B. Kaufmann, M. Centorame, P. Lorite & M.V. Modica (2017b): Four species within the supercolonial ants of the Tapinoma nigerrimum complex revealed by integrative taxonomy (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). – Myrmecological News 24: 123-144.

Seifert, B., R. Schultz, M. Ritz & C. Ritz C (2018): Cryptic species of the Myrmica tibetana complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) revealed by integrative taxonomy . – Myrmecological News 27: 93-110.

Sonneborn, T. M. (1957): Breeding systems, reproductive methods, and species problems in protozoa. In: Mayr, E. (ed): The species problem: a symposium presented at the Atlanta Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 28-29, 1955. – American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington 50: 155-324.

Talavera, G., X. Espadaler & R. Vila (2014): Discovered just before extinction? The first endemic ant from the Balearic Islands (Lasius balearicus sp. nov.) is endangered by climate change. – Journal of Biogeography 42: 589–601.

Tarbinsky, J. S. (1976): Muravi Kirgisii. – Izdatelstvo Ilim, Frunse / Kyrgyztan, 217 pp.

Waloff, N. & E. Blackith (1962): The growth and distribution of the mounds of Lasius flavus (Fabricius) (Hym.,Formicidae) in Silwood Park, Berkshire. – Journal of Animal Ecology 31(3): 421-437.

Yamauchi, K. (1979): Taxonomical and ecological studies on the genus Lasius in Japan. II. Geographical distribution, habitat, nest site preference and nest structure. – Scientific Reports of the Faculty of Education of the Gifu University 7: 420-433.

Yamauchi, K., K. Ito & N. Suzuki (1986): Observations on nuptial flight of the ant genus Lasius. – Scientific Reports of the Faculty of Education of the Gifu University 10: 1-11.

Wagner, H.C., W. Arthofer, B. Seifert, C. Muster, F. M. Steiner & B.C. Schlick-Steiner (2017): Light at the end of the tunnel: Integrative taxonomy delimits cryptic species in the Tetramorium caespitum complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). – Myrmecological News 25: 95-129.

Wilson, E.O. (1955): A monographic revision of the ant genus Lasius. – Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 113: 1-201.

Published
2020-05-26
How to Cite
Seifert, B. (2020). A taxonomic revision of the Palaearctic members of the subgenus Lasius s.str. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). SOIL ORGANISMS, 92(1), 15–86. https://doi.org/10.25674/so92iss1pp15
Section
ARTICLES