An illustrated identification key to the eutardigrade species (Tardigrada, Eutardigrada) presently known from European soils

  • Jana Bingemer Senckenberg Museum für Naturkunde Görlitz, Am Museum 1, PF 300154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany
  • Karin Hohberg Senckenberg Museum für Naturkunde Görlitz, Am Museum 1, PF 300154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany
Keywords: Eutardigrada, Identification key, Soil tardigrades

Abstract

The present paper aims at providing a practical identification tool for soil zoologists. It shall facilitate taxonomic examination of tardigrade communities in order to encourage further investigations and by this expand our scarce knowledge on soil tardigrades. From faunistic studies on soil tardigrades a list of the eutardigrade species presently known from European soils was gathered comprising 22 genera, 58 species, 3 species groups. Based on the most important standard works and on up-to-date nomenclature an illustrated key to the eutardigrade genera of European soils was created. Genus descriptions and identification keys to the soil species were added while those genera that hold only one or two soil species were accomplished with short species descriptions. Additional information is given on the relevant determination features, such as claws and bucco-pharyngeal apparatus. Difficulties in tardigrade identification and taxonomy are discussed. Due to the comparably small number of studies that so far exist on soil tardigrades, the key will most likely not cover all species present in European soils, but shall provide a basis to facilitate further research.

 

References

Anderson, R. V., R. E. Ingham, J. A. Trofymow & D. C. Coleman (1984): Soil mesofaunal distribution in relation to habitat types. – Pedobiologia 26: 257–261.

Arcidiacono, R. (1962): Ricerche sulla fauna e sulla zoogeografia della Sicilia. XIII. Contributo alla conoszenza dei Tardigradi dei Monti Nebrodi e descrizione di una nuova specie di Itaquascon. Bollettino delle Sedute dell’Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali di Catania 4: 123–124.

Bardgett, R. (2005): The biology of soil: a community and ecosystem approach. − Oxford University Press: 242 pp.

Bartels, P. J. & D. R Nelson (2012): An online key and field guide to the tardigrades of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (North Carolina & Tennessee, USA, North America) with taxonomic revisions of two species – Zootaxa 3249: 67–68.

Bernard, E. C. (1977): A new species of Hexapodibius from North America, with a redescription of Diphascon belgicae (Tardigrada). – Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 96: 476–482.

Bertolani, R. (1982): Tardigradi. Guide per il riconoscimento delle specie animali delle acque interne Italiane. – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Verona, Italy: 104 pp.

Bertolani, R. & V. I. Biserov (1996): Leg and claw adaptations in soil tardigrades, with erection of two new genera of Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae: Pseudohexapodibius and Xerobiotus. – Invertebrate Biology 115: 299–304.

Bertolani, R. & L. Rebecchi (1993): A revision of the Macrobiotus hufelandi group (Tardigrada, Macrobiotidae), with some observations on the taxonomic characters of eutardigrades. – Zoologica Scripta 22: 127–152.

Bertolani, R. & L. Rebecchi (1996): The tardigrades of Emilia (Italy). II. Monte Rondinaio. A multihabitat study on high altitude valley of the northern Apennines. – Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 116: 3–12.

Bertolani, R., G. C. Manicardi & D. Gibertoni (1987): Tardigradi della Riserva naturale di Torricchio e dei Monti Sibillini. − La Riserva Naturale di Torricchio 7: 15–34.

Bertolani R., R. Guidetti & L. Rebecchi (1994): Tardigradi dell’Appennino umbro-marchigiano. − Biogeographia 17: 223–245.

Bertolani, R., R. Guidetti, T. Marchioro, T. Altiero, L. Rebecchi & M. Cesari (2014a). Phylogeny of Eutardigrada: New molecular data and their morphological support lead to the identification of new evolutionary lineages. – Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 76: 110–126.

Bertolani, R., P. J. Bartels, R. Guidetti, M. Cesari & D. R. Nelson (2014b): Aquatic tardigrades in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina and Tennessee, USA, with the description of a new species of Thulinius (Tardigrada, Isohypsibiidae). – Zootaxa 3764: 524–536.

Binda, M. G. & G. Pilato (1986): Ramazzottius, nuovo genere di Eutardigrado (Hypsibiidae). – Animalia 13: 159–166.

Binda, M. G. & G. Pilato (1995): Remarks on tardigrades from the Seychelles, with a description of two new species. – Tropical Zoology 8: 1–6.

Biserov, V. I. (1992): A new genus and three new species of tardigrades (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada) from the USSR. – Italian Journal of Zoology 59: 95–103.

Briones, M. J. I., P. Ineson & T. G. Piearce (1997): Effects of climate change on soil fauna: responses of enchytraeids, Diptera larvae and tardigrades in a transplant experiment. – Applied Soil Ecology 6: 117–134.

Dastych, H. (1983): Apodibius confusus gen. n. sp., a new water-bear from Poland (Tardigrada). – Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences Biology 31: 41–46.

Dastych, H. (1988): The Tardigrada of Poland. – Monografie Fauny Polski 16, Warsaw: 355 pp.

Dastych, H. (2011): Bergtrollus dzimbowski gen. n., sp. n., a remarkable new tardigrade genus and species from the nival zone of the Lyngen Alps, Norway (Tardigrada: Milnesiidae). – Entomologische Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum Hamburg 15: 335–359.

Dastych, H. & G. Alberti (1990): Redescription of Macrobiotus xerophilus (Dastych, 1978) comb. Nov. with some phylogenetic notes (Tardigrada Macrobiotidae) – Mitteilungen des Hamburger Zoologischen Museums und Instituts. 87: 157–169.

Degma, P. (2010). Moss dwelling Tardigrada - from sampling to their identification – In: European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy, Summer School: 33 pp.

Degma, P. & R. Guidetti, (2007): Notes to the current checklist of Tardigrada. – Zootaxa 1579: 41–53.

Degma, P., R. Bertolani & R. Guidetti (2017): Actual checklist of Tardigrada species [http://www.tardigrada.modena.unimo.it/miscellanea/Actual%20checklist%20of%20Tardigrada.pdf]. Accessed August 08 2017.

Fontoura, P., G. Pilato, O. Lisi & P. Morais (2009): Tardigrades from Portugal: four new records and description of two new species. – Zootaxa 2030: 21–38.

Fujimoto, S., K. Miyazaki, & A. C. Suzuki (2013): A new marine tardigrade, Tanarctus diplocerus (Arthrotardigrada: Halechiniscidae) from Japan – Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 93:

–961.

Guidetti. R. & R. Bertolani (2001): The tardigrades of Emilia (Italy). III. Piane di Mocogno (Northern Apennines). − Zoologischer Anzeiger 240: 377–383.

Guidetti, R. & R. Bertolani (2005): Tardigrade taxonomy: an updated checklist of the taxa and a list of characters for their identification. Zootaxa 845: 1–46.

Guidetti, R., R. Bertolani & D. R. Nelson (1999): Ecological and faunistic studies on tardigrades in leaf litter of beech forests. – Zoologischer Anzeiger 238: 215–223.

Guidetti, R., R. O. Schill, R. Bertolani, T. Dandekar & M. Wolf (2009): New molecular data for tardigrade phylogeny, with the erection of Paramacrobiotus gen. nov. – Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 47: 315–321.

Guil, N., E. Rodrigo & A. Machordom (2014): Soil tardigrade biodiversity with the description of a new eutardigrade genus and its phylogenetic position. – Systematics and Biodiversity 13: 234–256.

Hallas, T. E. & G. W. Yeates (1972): Tardigrada of the soil and litter of a Danish beech forest. – Pedobiologia 12: 287–304.

Hansen, J. G., R. M. Kristensen, R. Bertolani & R. Guidetti (2017): Comparative analyses of Bertolanius species (Eohypsibiidae; Eutardigrada) with the description of Bertolanius birnae sp. nov. from northern polar regions. – Polar Biology 40: 123–140.

Harada, H. & M.T. Ito (2006): Soil-inhabiting tardigrade communities in forests of Central Japan – Hydrobiologia 558: 119–127.

Hohberg, K. (2006): Tardigrade species composition in young soils and some aspects on life history of Macrobiotus richtersi J. Murray, 1911. – Pedobiologia 50: 267–274.

Hohberg, K., D. J. Russell, M. Elmer (2011): Mass occurrence of algal-feeding tardigrade Apodibius confusus in the young soils of a post-mining site. – Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 49: 62–65.

Iharos, G. (1977): Die Tardigradenfauna des Bakony-Gebirges, V. – Opuscula Zoologica Budapest 13: 61–67.

Ito, M. T. & W. Abe (2001): Micro-distribution of soil inhabiting tardigrades (Tardigrada) in a sub-alpine coniferous forest of Japan. – Zoologischer Anzeiger 240: 403–407.

Kaczmarek, Ł., K. Janko, J. Smykla & Ł. Michalczyk (2014): Soil tardigrades from the Antarctic Peninsula with a description of a new species and some remarks on the genus Ramajendas (Eutardigrada: Isohypsibiidae). – Polar Record 50: 176–182.

Lisi, O. (2011): Remarks on Doryphoribius flavus (Iharos, 1966), and description of three new species (Tardigrada, Hypsibiidae). – Zootaxa, 2834: 17–32.

Lisi, O., M. G. Binda & G. Pilato (2016): Eremobiotus ginevrae sp. nov. and Paramacrobiotus pius sp. nov., two new species of Eutardigrada. – Zootaxa, 4103: 344–360.

Manicardi, G. C., R. Bertolani (1987): First contribution to the knowledge of alpine grassland tardigrades. − In: R. Bertolani (Ed.), Biology of Tardigrades. Selected Symposia and Monographs U.Z.I., Mucchi, Modena, Italy, Vol. 1: 177–185.

Marcus, E. (1929): Tardigrada. – In: Bronn, H. G. (ed.) Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs 5, Abtlg. IV, Buch 3. – Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig: 1–530.

Marley, N. J., S. J. McInnes & C. J. Sands (2011): Phylum Tardigrada: a re-evaluation of the Parachela. Zootaxa 2819: 51–64.

Meyer, H. A., & M. N. Domingue (2011): Minibiotus acadianus (Eutardigrada: Macrobiotidae), a new species of Tardigrada from southern Louisiana, USA. – Western North American Naturalist 71: 38–43.

Michalczyk, Ł. & Ł. Kaczmarek (2010): Description of Doryphoribius dawkinsi, a new species of Tardigrada (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae) from the Costa Rican highlands, with the key to the genus Doryphoribius – Zootaxa 2393: 46–58.

Michalczyk, L, W. Welnicz, M. Frohme & L. Kaczmarek (2012): Redescription of three Milnesium Doyère, 1840 taxa (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada: Milnesiidae), including the nominal species for the genus. – Zootaxa 3154: 1–20.

Mihelcic, F. (1949): Nuevos biotopos de tardígrados. Contribución al conocimiento de la ecología de los tardígrados – Anales de Edafología y Fisiología Vegetal 8: 511–526.

Mihelcic, F. (1954): Nuevos biotopos de tardígrados. Contribución al conocimiento de la ecología de los tardígrados en España; studio sistemático-ecológico – Anales de Edafología y Fisiología Vegetal 13: 511–526.

Mihelcic, F. (1958): Sobre la geofilia de los tardígrados – Anales de Edafología y Fisiología Vegetal 17: 511–526.

Mihelcic, F. (1963): Können Tardigraden im Boden leben? – Pedobiologia 2: 96–101.

Mihelcic, F. (1965): Zur Kenntnis der Entwicklung der Tardigradenzönosen während der Verrottung der Streu. – Zoologischer Anzeiher 174: 150–156.

Mihelcic, F. (1972): Zur Kenntnis der Tardigraden der Steiermark. – Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark 102: 157–167.

Morgan, C. I. (1980): Acta Naturalia Islandica: 27. A systematic survey of Tardigrada from Iceland – Reyljavik: The Icelandic Museum of Natural History.

Murray, J. (1905): The Tardigrada of the Forth Valley. – Annales of Scottish Natural History 55: 160–164.

Nelson, D. R. & P.J. Bartels (2013): Species richness of soil and leaf litter tardigrades in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (North Carolina/Tennessee, USA). Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Tardigrada – Journal of Limnology 72: 144–151.

Nelson, D. R., R. Guidetti & L. Rebecchi (2015): Phylum Tardigrada. – In: Thorp, J. & D. C. Rogers (Eds.) Ecology and General Biology: Thorp and Covich’s Freshwater Invertebrates. Academic Press: 347–380.

Pilato, G. (1969): Su un interessante Tardigrado esapodo delle dune costiere siciliane: Hexapodibius micronyx n. gen. n. sp. – Bollettino delle sedute dell’Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali, Catania 9: 619–622.

Pilato, G. (1987): Revision of the genus Diphascon Plate, 1889, with remarks on the subfamily Itaquasconinae (Eutardigrada, Hypsibiidae). – In: Bertolani, R. (ed.) Biology of Tardigrades, Modena, Italy: 337–357.

Pilato, G. & M. G. Binda (1999): Three new species of Diphascon of the pingue group (Eutardigrada, Hypsibiidae) from Antarctica. − Polar Biology 21: 335–342

Pilato, G. & M. G. Binda (2003): Hexapodibius christenberryae, a new species of tardigrade from North America (Eutardigrada, Calohypsibiidae). – Zootaxa 140: 1–6.

Pilato, G. & M. G. Binda (2010): Definition of families, subfamilies, genera and subgenera of the Eutardigrada, and keys to their identification. – Zootaxa 2404: 1–54.

Pilato, G. & R. Bertolani (2005): Diphascon (Diphascon) dolomiticum, a new species of Hypsibiidae (Eutardigrada) from Italy. − Zootaxa 914: 1–5.

Pilato, G., M. G. Binda, R. Bertolani, O. Lisi (2005): Four new species of the Diphascon nobilei group (Eutardigrada, Hypsibiidae). − Journal of Natural Hystory 39: 1029–1041.

Pilato, G., Y. Kiosya, O. Lisi, V. Inshina & V. Biserov. (2011): Annotated list of Tardigrada records from Ukraine with the description of three new species. – Zootaxa 3123: 1–31.

Pollock, L. W. (1995): New marine tardigrades from Hawaiian beach sand and phylogeny of the family Halechiniscidae – Invertebrate Biology 114: 220–235.

Ramazzotti, G. (1959): Tardigradi in terreni prativi. − Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano 98: 199–210.

Ramazzotti, G., W. Maucci (1983): Il Phylum Tardigrada. 3. edizione riveduta e aggiornata. – Memorie dell’Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia 41: 1–1012 (An English translation, edited by C. Beasley may be obtained from D. R. Nelson, East Tennessee State University, TN, USA).

Richters, F. (1903): Nordische Tardigraden. – Zoologischer Anzeiger 27: 168–172.

Stark, C. & R. M. Kristensen (1999): Tardigrades in the soil of Greenland – Berichte zur Polarforschung 330: 44–63.

Vecchi, M., M. Cesari, R. Bertolani, K.I. Jönsson, L. Rebecchi & R. Guidetti (2016): Integrative systematic studies on tardigrades from Antarctica identify new genera and new species within Macrobiotoidea and Echiniscoidea. – Invertebrate Systematics 30: 303–322.

Published
2017-12-01
How to Cite
Bingemer , J., & Hohberg, K. (2017). An illustrated identification key to the eutardigrade species (Tardigrada, Eutardigrada) presently known from European soils. SOIL ORGANISMS, 89(3), 127–149. Retrieved from http://soil-organisms.org/index.php/SO/article/view/74
Section
ARTICLES